Flea market returned to Cobblestone Museum on Saturday after long absence

By Tom Rivers, Editor Posted 15 August 2022 at 11:08 am

Photos by Tom Rivers

GAINES – Lisa Mannella of L & S Creative Designs is shown with a display of country craft items that she makes with Stephanie Rustay. They were one of 27 vendors at a flea market on Saturday at the Cobblestone Museum.

The flea market returned after more than 20 years. The event was a popular summer event at the museum in the 1980s and ’90s, said Sue Bonafini, assistant director at the museum.

She noted many of the vendors were busy on Saturday, with some selling at least half of the items they brought for the sale.

The museum also sold out on all 100 hot dogs it cooked for the flea market.

Frank Ferri of Medina spins wool from a sheep next to his booth of primitive items. Ferri said twisting the wool gives it strength.

“It’s a great conversation starter,” he said while sitting outside the historic Ward House on Route 104.

Ed Shorey of Albion brought a collection of vintage and new fishing lures, which he said were popular with the crowd at the flea market. Some of the older lures were made of wood from the 1940s and ’50s. He is impressed by the artistry in the older lures, especially the eyes that were carved by hand.

Grant will fund Cultural Resource Inventory in Childs hamlet

By Ginny Kropf, correspondent Posted 2 August 2022 at 3:06 pm

Cobblestone Museum seeks to have hamlet included on National Register of Historic Places

Photo by Tom Rivers: The Cobblestone Universalist Church, built in 1834, is the oldest cobblestone church building in North America. It is among several historic sites in the Childs hamlet near the intersection of routes 98 and 104. Three cobblestone buildings at the museum – the church, the Ward House and a schoolhouse – are listed as a National Historic Landmark.

CHILDS – The Cobblestone Society and Museum is one of this year’s Preserve New York grantees, Museum director Doug Farley announced Monday.

A check for $8,000 received on Monday will fund a Cultural Resource Survey of the hamlet of Childs, which will go on to inform a National Register of Historic Places nomination. The Preservation League of New York State and their program partners at the New York State Council on the Arts are thrilled to help fund this important work, Farley said.

“A successful listing on the National Register will make tax credits available for approved rehabilitation projects by both home and business property owners in the designated area,” Farley said. “National Register listing will also allow the Cobblestone Museum to qualify for certain grant funding that requires NR designation.”

Through its Preserve New York grant, the Cobblestone Museum will work with the Landmark Society of Western New York to conduct a cultural resource survey of the hamlet of Childs. This reconnaissance level survey will be used to inform a National Register historic district nomination, which will include the Cobblestone Museum buildings and surrounding properties. This project seeks to build on the momentum created by the inclusion of the hamlet on the Landmark Society’s 2019 Five to Revive list. The Museum has been in contact with the New York State Historic Preservation Office and has identified preliminary district boundaries, according to Farley.

At its 2022 meeting, an independent grant panel selected 22 applicants in 18 counties to receive support totaling $235,920. Each grant supports important arts and cultural initiatives, as well as economic development related to the state’s arts and cultural heritage. Many of these grants will lead to historic district designation or expansion, tell the stories of communities throughout the state and allowing property owners to take advantage of the New York State and Federal Historic tax credits. This is even more valuable now, Farley said, with the New York State Commercial Historic tax credit recently expanded for small projects, granting property owners a 30% credit. With this announcement of the 2022 awards, support provided by Preserve New York since its launch in 1993 totals more than $3.5 million for 510 projects statewide.

Erin Anheier with the Cobblestone Society wrote this new grant because she has written several successful National Register nominations in the past, and was best prepared to tackle the task, Farley said.

“We currently apply for about 15 grants each year and receive about 10,” he said. “The check came Monday and work on the Historic Register nomination should start very soon. This grant certainly benefits the Cobblestone Museum, but I am also pleased that his particular grant has many benefits for the entire historic hamlet of Childs.”

The Preserve New York program is a regrant partnership between the New York State Council on the Arts and the Preservation League, made possible with the support of the Office of the Governor and the New York State legislature.

Since 1993, Preserve New York has been providing funds to municipalities and nonprofit organizations that need technical, professional assistance to guide a variety of preservation projects. This historic structure reports, building condition reports, cultural landscape reports and cultural resource surveys funded through this program lead to positive outcomes across New York’s 62 counties, Farley reported.

“The Preserve New York program ensures arts and culture organizations continue to be beacons of New York’s rich history,” said Mara Manus, NYSCA executive director. “By preserving significant spaces and sites, we promote vitality and drive economic activity across our great state. NYSCA applauds the Preservation League of New York State for their stewardship of this crucial opportunity and extends our sincere congratulations to all awardees.”

“The projects funded by Preserve New York exemplify the excellent preservation planning work being done throughout our state,” said Katie Eggers Comeau, vice president for Policy and Preservation at the Preservation League. “With each of these grants, a meaningful historic place takes a significant step toward a more secure future, and we are pleased to be working with such dedicated project sponsors to make this work possible.”

Vendors sought for flea market on Aug. 13 at Cobblestone Museum

By Ginny Kropf, correspondent Posted 12 July 2022 at 10:16 am

CHILDS – A fundraiser that was once one of the highlights of the summer season at the Cobblestone Museum is being brought back by volunteer coordinator Sue Bonafini.

“Sooner or later, everything old is new again,” is a quote by Stephen King, which Bonafini shares in her explanation for planning a flea market Aug. 13 on the grounds of the Cobblestone Museum.

“So why not attempt a fundraiser that was enjoyed by so many in the Cobblestone Society’s past,” Bonafini asked.

The flea market will take place from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., featuring a white elephant booth with contributions from the membership or community at-large, a large assortment of gently used books for sale and hot dogs and refreshments for sale.

In addition, Bonafini is hoping for a large turnout of vendors with a variety of goods for purchase, such as treasures which homeowners may no longer need, but someone else might.

Bonafini got the idea for a vendor fair while reviewing the Museum’s archival records of past events during the 1980s and 1990s.

“It was noted that during the month of August, the museum held the Cobblestone Fair and Flea Market events as summer fundraisers,” she said. “So I spoke with director Doug Farley and gained his support to plan a similar event for this summer on Aug. 13.”

In addition to the large book booth and white elephant booth, the Cobblestone Museum is adding a Holiday Shoppe featuring Christmas decorations. All items will be affordably priced to encourage sales, Bonafini said.

“In order to offer a wider selection of items to our visitors, we’re hopeful members of the community will rent booth space on our grounds and sell additional products,” Bonafini said.

She is hoping to attract vendors who can sell a variety of crafts or antiques, as well as individuals or organizations who wish to showcase and sell goods. Cost to rent a 10 x 10-foot square space is only $20.  A folding chair or two will be provided with each space, while supply lasts, but no table.

It is anticipated a large team of volunteers will be needed to keep the event running smoothly, and anyone interested in helping may contact Bonafini at Booth reservations may be made by calling (585) 589-9013.

Those who would like to contribute items to the white elephant booth should also contact the museum to arrange a drop-off time.

“There’s still plenty of time for people to survey closets, attics, garages and basements to find possible contributions,” Bonafini said.

Cyclists love countryside, small towns in Orleans County

By Tom Rivers, Editor Posted 11 July 2022 at 11:18 am

Photos by Tom Rivers

GAINES – There are 750 cyclists travelling along the towpath in Erie Canal today through Orleans County, including this group that is heading east in Eagle Harbor, headed towards the lift bridge at about 8:30 a.m.

The cyclists said they loved seeing the lush agricultural fields and experiencing the small towns. They left on Sunday morning from Buffalo and stayed overnight in Medina. Today they are headed to Fairport. The eight-day journey covers about 400 miles to Albany.

This is the 24th annual Cycling the Erie Canal trek. The event was cancelled in 2020 and returned last year but was at about half capacity, limited to 350 riders. This year it is back to full strength at 750.

These cyclists stop by an interpretive panel in Ridgeway above the Canal Culvert. This is the only spot where you can drive under the Erie Canal.

The Culvert wowed the cyclists, who stopped to get selfies with the big stone structure.

Many of the cyclists welcomed the chance to walk down the dark tunnel which has sidewalks.

Anne Gulay of Canastota in Madison County and Joe Wagner of Glens Falls stopped for a photo with the Culvert.

Gulay, 61, and Wagner, 67, said they appreciated the warm welcome in Medina and along the canal villages so far on the journey. They said they have already made many new friends among the cyclists who come from 40 different states.

“It’s fabulous,” Wagner said. “The people are fantastically friendly and supportive.”

These cyclists are near the historical marker in Gaines that notes the northernmost point of the Erie Canal.

These cyclists are approaching the Gaines Basin canal bridge, about 2 miles from the Main Street lift bridge in Albion.

Bob Schumacher wore a Santa suit and greeted cyclists as they arrived in Albion this morning by Tinsel. Schumacher highlighted Albion’s distinction as home of the first Santa Claus School. It was run by Charles Howard from 1937 to 1966.

Lori Laine, right, handed out painted rocks with a cycling theme. She was part of a local welcoming group that also gave the cyclists orange slices and pointed them to nearby local attractions. Tinsel used to be painted white but last month a new large-scale mural of flowers was completed by artist Justin Suarez of Rochester.

Laine is chatting with Valerie Lloyd, 70, of Hernando, Fla. Lloyd said she lived in Los Angeles for 50 years. She is enjoying the ride along the towpath through the rural areas.

“To see these small towns and the open fields is just wonderful,” she said.

These cyclists check out the Santa School-themed mural on the north side of The Lake Country Pennysaver building. Justin Suarez also did that mural.

These cyclists visit the mural at Waterman Park of a Santa in a sleigh over downtown Albion and the Courthouse Square. Stacey Kirby Steward painted that mural in 2015. Next year there should be a bronze statue of Santa at the site.

The cyclists will also be greeted in Holley as part of the trip. Holley is about the halfway point in today’s ride and is an official welcome stop.

Museum plans art tour on July 15 to highlight paintings, prints and sculptures

By Ginny Kropf, correspondent Posted 7 July 2022 at 8:13 am

Provided photos: This is a composite photo of a few of the forms of art on display at the Cobblestone Museum complex. A tour of the arts is scheduled at 6 p.m. July 15.

CHILDS – The Cobblestone Society Museum has planned a unique art tour July 15 to highlight some of the many paintings, prints and sculptures on display at the museum.

Former art teacher and Cobblestone Museum director and curator Bill Lattin will lead an educational tour with a dozen stops to examine a variety of art from the 19th and 20th centuries.

Museum director Doug Farley said participants should be prepared to spend a relaxing summer evening being pleased and amazed during the “artful” tour.

“Wear your comfortable shoes so you are ready to walk around our various buildings to see the many paintings, prints and sculptures,” Farley advised.

The tour will take place rain or shine. A free-will donation will be accepted. Those planning to attend are asked to reserve their spot on the tour by calling the museum at (585) 589-9013.

Patriotic church service returns at Cobblestone Museum with picnic to follow

By Ginny Kropf, correspondent Posted 28 June 2022 at 9:24 pm

Photo contributed: Diana Dudley plays the historic organ at the Cobblestone Church accompanying soloist Maarit Vaga at a prior patriotic service. The service will again take place at 11 a.m. Sunday, followed by a picnic on the museum grounds.

CHILDS – The Cobblestone Museum’s patriotic service this year will have a new twist to it, according to director Doug Farley.

Harkening back to its early roots, the focus will be more on patriotism, featuring patriotic songs, poems and readings designed to make one proud of America and all that it stands for, said Bill Lattin, who has planned the service with Maarit Vaga. The service will begin at 11 a.m.

Lattin said this is the 50th year for the service, which he started in 1971 when he became curator of the Cobblestone Museum. The service was skipped the last two years due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

Lattin said the early services were patriotic with a keynote speaker, but one year the local Congregational Church’s pastor could not preach on Sunday, so suggested the people attend the service at the Cobblestone Church. Eventually three local churches began to participate and it evolved into more of a religious service.

Now Lattin said they decided to go back to the original format.

In addition to a solo by Vaga, Lattin’s granddaughter Phoebe Kirby will play a patriotic song on her guitar and Lattin will play an Edison cylinder record by comedian Cal Stewart on his Edison machine.

“We want people to go home feeling jolly,” Lattin said.

After the patriotic service, attendees will move outdoors to enjoy a good old-fashioned picnic with hotdogs on the grill.

Everyone is asked to bring their own lawn chair and a dish to pass. Hotdogs and beverages will be provided. A free will offering will be received.

The service has been planned by Bill Lattin and Maarit Vaga, while Farley is in charge of the picnic.

Lattin said the Cobblestone Society has had many different programs over the years and they carry on for a while and most fizzle out.

“The Fourth of July patriotic service is the only one that has lasted,” he said.

New exhibit at Cobblestone Museum gallery features collection of Victorian mourning art

Photos by Ginny Kropf – Doug Farley, director of the Cobblestone Society Museum, looks at a shadowbox memorial with a stuffed dove, crucifix and wax flowers which is part of Bill Lattin’s collection of Victorian mourning art. Two hundred pieces of his collection are in an exhibit at the Museum’s Upper Gallery, which will open with a reception from 5 to 8 p.m. on June 24.

By Ginny Kropf, correspondent Posted 16 June 2022 at 7:14 pm

Bill Lattin, former director of the Cobblestone Society Museum, holds a death mask of Dr. Roswell Park, which is part of Lattin’s collection of Victorian mourning art.

CHILDS – An exhibit showcasing Victorian mourning art prominent in the late 19th century will open June 24 in the Cobblestone Society Museum’s Upper Gallery, next to the Cobblestone Church, with a reception from 5 to 8 p.m. The cobblestone Ward House, where a body cooler is displayed, will also be open for viewing.

The exhibit is a collection belonging to Bill Lattin, former director and curator of the Cobblestone Society Museum. He has put together a floor-to-ceiling exhibit of 200 pieces of funeral art and related ephemera.

Lattin said he first became interested in mourning art when he was in college during the mid-1960s. A college professor who taught photography had a collection of antique post mortem pictures from the 19th century and Lattin found them fascinating.

The first piece he purchased was a death mask of Dr. Roswell Park, who was the attending physician when President William McKinley was assassinated. An antique dealer in Brockport sold it to Lattin for $5. He said the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society has one like it, but in a different color.

“From time to time I’d find unusual things and pick them up,” Lattin said. “In the last 25 to 30 years, I became more aggressive about finding things.”

Lattin said the Victorians tried to make death a beautiful thing, as portrayed by the flowers and ornate decorations of many of the items.

Many in his collection are one-of-a-kind (handmade) memorials. Others include manufactured knick-knacks and many memorial prints, as well as art made from hair in shadowboxes. One shadowbox holds a stuffed dove, crucifix  and wax flowers.

Another poignant piece is a framed print of a dog, who appears to be in mourning at a young child’s empty bed. The dog is sitting on his hind legs with his head bowed, as if he knows he has lost his playmate.

Visitors to the exhibit will receive a catalog describing each of the pieces, along with a booklet titled “Life and Death of Rich Mrs. Duck,  A Notorious Glutton,” in exchange for a donation. The booklet would be used to talk to children about death, Farley said.

Lattin said he previously exhibited his collection of Victorian mourning art about 10 years ago in Proctor Room of the Cobblestone Church. He said it attracted more visitors than any other exhibit he did as director of the Cobblestone Museum.

The exhibit will be open from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tuesday through Saturday, or by appointment by calling (585) 589-9013.

Cobblestone Museum summer solstice soiree will be at proposed visitors’ center on June 22

Photo by Tom Rivers: The Cobblestone Museum is planning to turn this house from 1824 into a visitors’ center. The site is prominent at the intersection of routes 98 and 104. The plans include a modern addition to the site with bathrooms and a meeting space.

By Ginny Kropf, correspondent Posted 13 June 2022 at 12:33 pm

CHILDS – Summer Solstice Soiree IV will take place this year in a historic location on June 22.

Maarit Vaga is organizer of the event this year, which will have an entirely different format, taking place in the proposed Cobblestone Visitors Center across from the Cobblestone Museum. This will be the first official event to take place in the Civil War-era home at the corner of Route 98 and Ridge Road.

Previous Soirees have taken place in picturesque locations with beautiful landscaping and flowers, but because the property just recently acquired by the Cobblestone Museum does not have any gardens, Summer Solstice Soiree IV will project beauty in a different way, Vaga said.

The Soiree, which will take place from 4 p.m. until dark, is being called a “Celebration of Beauty.”

Visitors can create art themselves by participating in an activity related to the language of flowers, Vaga said. There will be poetry readings, music, artists and their art, ceramic painting, Haiku, origami, a poetry mic and more.

A scavenger hunt is designed for children of all ages, and a promenade of quotes will incorporate poetry into the festival of 19th century poets whose works speak of beauty. Several local poets will be featured.

Music will be provided by Gary Simboli and the Orleans County String Band formerly known as Cabin Fever. Ray Santoro will play the spinet piano in the vestibule.

Cheryl Giacherio from Oak Orchard on the Lake will have lanterns that glow, which she makes.

Admission to the Soiree is free, but a $5 donation is suggested. All donations go to the Cobblestone Society Museum.

Charcuterie snack boxes are available by pre-ordering. Assorted savory snacks with a glass of wine is $15, or a snack box without wine may be ordered for $10. There will be a wine cash bar, baked goods and light snacks for sale. Visitors may bring a picnic basket if they wish.  For more information or to pre-order, contact the Cobblestone Museum at (585) 589-9013 or through the website,

Wine will be provided by Leonard Oakes Estate Winery. Non-alcoholic drinks will also be available.

“We have created an event where people can sit quietly or participate and engage in beauty,” Vaga said.

Historic Childs: Musical Instruments – Part 4, The Gulbransen Player Piano

Posted 29 May 2022 at 3:10 pm

By Doug Farley, Cobblestone Museum Director – Vol. 3 No. 13

CHILDS – This is the fourth article in the “Historic Childs-Musical Instruments” series, and the subject instrument is a Gulbransen Player Piano built in 1926.  This upright player piano is part of the artifact collection at the Cobblestone Museum’s Vagg House, a 1920s home that was once the residence of the last blacksmith on Ridge Road, Joseph Vagg, and his wife, Nellie.

René Schasel & “Jairus,” 2001

The Museum was fortunate to acquire the Gulbransen Player Piano as part of the Schasel Collection of artifacts, donated by the Estate of René Schasel in 2020.

A player piano (also known as a pianola) is a self-playing piano, containing a pneumatic or electro-mechanical mechanism, that operates the piano action (keys) via programmed music recorded on perforated paper, or in rare instances, metallic rolls. The rise of the player piano grew with the rise of the mass-produced piano for the home, in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Sales peaked in 1924, then declined, as the improvement in phonograph recordings due to electrical recording methods developed in the mid-1920s. The advent of electrical amplification in home music reproduction via radio in the same period helped bring about their eventual decline in popularity, and the stock market crash of 1929 virtually wiped out production.

Gulbransen Company of Chicago was an outstanding musical instrument manufacturer of player pianos and home organs. It also made reed organs. It was originally established in 1904 by Axel Gulbransen as Gulbransen Piano Company. In the history of musical instruments, Gulbransen is notable for several innovations.

In its early years, Gulbransen made the first upright piano with a player piano mechanism in the same case. By the 1920s, thousands of player pianos were manufactured by the firm. Later, in the electronic organ era, Gulbransen pioneered several innovations in the production of home electronic organs that became industry standards.

The Museum’s Gulbransen Player Piano is completely operated by “foot power.”  There are no electrical components. The piano player operates the piano by pumping a pair of pedals that power a large bellows in the bottom of the piano.

The air in the bellows moves through a labyrinth of air tubes that operate the 81 pneumatic pumps that move the hammers that strike the piano wires. Intent to play notes is produced via perforated paper rolls that are “programmed” to produce every note needed to play chords and melody to perform a specific song.

The musical repertoire for the instrument is only limited by one’s ability to acquire additional player piano rolls as shown above.

The Museum’s player piano is now maintained under the watchful eye of Dennis Mellander of Pavilion, seen here.

“There’s a million things that could go wrong with it,” Dennis said. He noted that every key has its own little pump and those can go bad, and there is a lot of cloth and leather parts that will dry out.  “Moving parts give out,” he said.

The Gulbransen has several levers that are used to control certain actions in the player piano. The “pianist” can change the volume of the instrument and adjust the tempo. A lever also locks the keyboard when needed.

Mellander stated, “The levers give the player the ability to add some musical expression to the composition.”

Dennis taught instrumental music at Byron-Bergen Middle School before retiring. He currently has a private studio and teaches individual students and also repairs pianos on the side.  His resume is embellished in that he is the principal organist at St. Mark’s Episcopal Church in Le Roy.

The Cobblestone Museum is planning a fall “concert,” to demonstrate the Gulbransen Player Piano and also the Museum’s Edison Cylinder Phonograph at the Vagg House on Friday, September 23 at 6 p.m. Light refreshments will be served. If you’d like to be included in the “audience,” call the museum at (585) 589-9013 for a reservation.  A free-will offering will be gladly accepted.

Cobblestone Museum meets $750K fundraising goal for visitors center

By Ginny Kropf, correspondent Posted 28 May 2022 at 8:44 am

Site will be named for Thompson and Kast families

Photos by Tom Rivers: The Cobblestone Museum will put an addition on this house from 1824 and make it a visitors center. The site is prominent at the intersection of routes 98 and 104.

CHILDS – Only eight months after aggressively launching a fundraising campaign to build a Visitors Center in Orleans County, the Cobblestone Society has announced exceeding its goal by reaching $759,000.

On the heels of that announcement comes the news of two local families who have stepped up for the naming rights to the center which be in a brick house from 1824 that will include an addition with a large meeting room.

The site will be known as the Thompson-Kast Visitors Center, Cobblestone director Doug Farley, membership chair Gail Thompson Johnson and fundraising chair Dick Remley announced Friday morning.

The Thompson and Kast families are longtime farmers in the Albion area, with a connection to each other. Gail Johnson’s parents Charles and Hannah Thompson sold their farm on the corner of Ridge Road and Brown Road to David and Kathy Kast in the 1960s.

Leaders of the museum and the fundraising effort discuss plans for the visitors center. From left include Doug Farley, the museum director; Dick Remley, the board president; and Gail Thompson Johnson, the membership chairwoman and a key donor to the project. David and Kathy Kast also gave for the naming rights to the visitors center, but were unable to attend Friday’s announcement.

Johnson remembers her father saying he could have probably received more money for the farm from someone else, but he knew the Kasts would take better care of it, she said.

“When we identified the Thompson family as having naming rights, it was natural we should also think of the Kasts,” said Farley.

He contacted the Kasts and 10 months later, they committed.

In addition to those major donors, other local families have also stepped up to buy naming rights, starting at $15,000, to more than a dozen rooms in the new Visitors Center.

Roger and Ingrid LaMont, also local farmers, fell in love with the fireplace in the front room and bought the naming rights to that space.

Roy Bubb of Holley was the first person Johnson called, and he immediately pledged support for another room, followed shortly after by John Nipher, who chose the kitchen with its antique fireplace.

Peter and Patricia Hurd have chosen naming rights to the reception room, which will probably be located in the new addition being planned to the existing house.

Other early donors are Bill and Jackie Bixler from Albion Agencies, Lawrence and Gabriella Albanese, Jack and Debby Batchellor, Orleans Chapter DAR, Elizabeth Dye Curtis Foundation and Jim and Sue Bonafini.

The addition is planned for the sloping grassy area on the southside of the brick house. It will have a large meeting room and new bathrooms.

The Visitors Center will be located in an 1824 home on the southeast corner of Ridge Road and Route 98.

Farley said a committee had been looking at establishing a visitors’ center in Orleans County for the last five years.

“We looked at everything – from existing buildings to a new build,” Farley said. “Then this building became available, and it checked off all the boxes, except a large meeting room. That we plan to add on.”

The Cobblestone completed purchase of the historic home on Dec. 1, 2021 from Ray and Linda Burke. They gave the brick house new life after extensive work about a decade ago.

Farley said the Cobblestone Museum is not open during the winter, but the Visitors Center will be open all year.

Farley shared benefits of establishing a Visitors Center at this location, which include prevention of a 19th century home from demolition or unrelated commercial activity, high visibility at an essential crossroads location, plentiful parking for school and tour buses, year-round access to restrooms, further expansion of the Cobblestone historic district, expansion of educational programming and visitation with year-round access, and a kitchenette for use by caterers or small receptions.

There will also be a large community meeting space for educational programming, a multi-purpose room, room for Orleans County Tourism, new exhibit space to interpret Orleans County history, space for viewing an introductory video and new cobblestone interactive exhibits, and space to display materials for all local attractions, such as the Medina Railroad Museum, Erie Canal, Point Breeze lighthouse, campgrounds, marinas, bed and breakfast sites, sportsfishing, agri-business, the wine trail and more.

Gail Johnson attended the Cobblestone School as a kid and has been a member of the Cobblestone Society since the 1960s, as a charter student member.

In addition to her family receiving the naming rights for the Cobblestone Visitors Center, Gail Johnson’s connection to the Cobblestone Society goes back to the early 1960s, when she became a student charter member of the Cobblestone Society. Next, she became a life member and now a legacy member. She heads the membership and donor committees.

“I had not been active in the Society for 30 years,” Johnson said. “Then after my husband Lyle died, I felt the need  to start meeting new people and I turned to the Cobblestone Museum, which was half a mile down the road where I began to do volunteer work, and I’ve been active ever since.”

Along with half of the naming rights to the building, Johnson is also adding her name to the new large meeting room.

Farley said they knew they didn’t have the resources to purchase the property for a visitors’ center, and would have to start fundraising.

Dick Remley had chaired the fundraising committee for the new Hoag Library in Albion, and stepped up as chair of the Cobblestone’s fundraising committee, with Brett Kast, Andrew Meier, Fred Miller, Bill Lattin and Johnson as co-chairs; Kevin Hamilton, treasurer; Erin Anheier, president of the Cobblestone board; and Farley.

“Like every good fundraiser, you lead by example, and we asked all the fundraising committee members and all the board members to make a contribution,” Farley said. “Within a month, we had identified $350,000 in pledges and before we went public in September, we had $500,000. Two weeks ago, right after our annual membership fundraising dinner, we met our goal.”

The Cobblestone Society initially identified 12 naming opportunities in the existing building at a minimum cost of $15,000 each, plus several more in the new building addition. Several naming opportunities still exist. Anyone interested in becoming part of this legacy program may contact Farley at (585) 589-9013, or Remley at (585) 506-8312.

Lynne Johnson, chair of the Orleans County Legislature, added her support for creation of a visitors’ center in Orleans County.

“The new Thompson-Kast Visitors Center will provide for better programming and educational opportunities that will enhance and further the understanding and celebration of this historic site,” Lynne Johnson said. “This is so vital to the community and our tourism. The visitors’ center will be a better way to accommodate all our annual visitors who descend upon our historic area. We look forward to its unique history and beauty and contribution to Orleans County.”

The Visitors Center committee is currently in the architectural drawings phase of the project.  Farley and Remley said they anticipate groundbreaking next spring.

Cobblestone Museum very close to $750K fundraising goal for Visitor’s Center

By Ginny Kropf, correspondent Posted 12 May 2022 at 2:51 pm

Photos by Ginny Kropf: Dick Remley, right, shares an update on fundraising for the Orleans County Visitors’ Center with guests at the Cobblestone Society’s annual membership meeting Wednesday at Carlton Recreation Hall. Looking on at left are Gail Johnson, chairwoman of the dinner, and Cobblestone Society director Doug Farley.

CARLTON – The Cobblestone Society’s fourth annual membership dinner took place Wednesday night at the Carlton Firemen’s Recreation Hall.

Cobblestone Museum director welcomed guests and introduced Dick Remley, fundraising chair of the drive to raise funds to build an Orleans County Visitors’ Center.

Larry Albanese, left, and retired Orleans County Sheriff Randy Bower examine U.S. Post Office boxes from the 1940s which were donated to the Cobblestone Society for a live auction.

Remley announced that $735,000 of the $750,000 goal for the Visitors’ Center has been pledged, and $354,000 has been collected – enough to complete the purchase of the building across the street which will become the Visitors’ Center. He said pledges were received from 115 different people and 12 names had been accepted for naming rights. A naming opportunity still exists. Museum director Doug Farley said they will announce the naming rights for the Visitors’ Center in the near future.

The architectural firm of Clinton Brown in Buffalo has been hired to create a master plan to rehab the building and add a meeting room. They hope to have a conceptual drawing in June.

“This will add a new dimension to the Cobblestone Society Museum and be a terrific asset for the entire county,” Remley said.

The grounds of the future Visitors’ Center will be the site of a Summer Solstice event June 22.

One of the couples attending the dinner was Amy Machamer of Hurd Orchards. She has attended other dinner meetings to support the Cobblestone Museum, and was amazed to see a grill in the live auction, similar to one on which she was the successful bidder at a previous dinner. The grill donated by Lowe’s in Brockport was one of nearly two dozen items in the live auction Wednesday night.

“Our house overlooks a beautiful peach orchard which slopes on the way to Sandy Creek,” Machamer said. “Our grill sits there in the back yard, where we love to sit.”

Prizes were awarded to five individuals in an early bird drawing for purchasing tickets by March 31.

A money tree raffled off was donated by Shirley Bright-Neeper, Camilla VanderLinden and Doreen Wilson.

The evening also featured a split club drawing, a silent auction featuring 40 donated items and a basket raffle. Former Orleans County Sheriff Randy Bower lent his expertise as an auctioneer for the evening and Larry Albanese was announcer.

Albanese called Bower the “auctioneer extraordinaire.”

“We’ve got this down,” Albanese said. “We’ve four years into doing this together.”

The meal, prepared by Zambistro’s in Medina, was entirely underwritten by Roy Bubb, John Nipher and Erin Anheier, all of Holley; and Gail Johnson of Albion.

Special thanks were extended to Scott B. Schickling, CPA, CFA of Medina for underwriting the cost of the Carlton Recreation Hall; Jackie and Bill Bixler, Leroy and Shirley Bright-Neeper and David Mitchell of Mitchell Family Funeral Homes for monetary donations; Diane Ecker Wadsworth of Bend, Ore., Grace Denniston and Tops Markets of Albion for the evening’s appetizers; Brenda Radzinski of Albion for the sheet cake; and Doreen Wilson of Albion for the cost of table coverings.

Events at the Cobblestone Museum include the spring exhibit of Victorian Mourning Art, Music of the 1920s on an Edison Victrola and upright player piano in May/June, the Summer Solstice Soiree June 22, Flea Market August 13, Fall Open House Sept. 10, Ghost Walk at a date to be announced in October and the Holiday Shoppe on dates to be announced.

Historic Childs: Musical Instruments – Part 3 – The Melodeons

Posted 9 May 2022 at 8:27 am

By Doug Farley, Cobblestone Museum Director – Vol. 3 No. 12

GAINES – As we mentioned in an earlier article, the Cobblestone Museum musical instrument collection has been enriched with a variety of artifacts that represent by-gone eras of musical entertainment.

The Museum is actually quite fortunate to have in its possession two historic Melodeons. The first melodeon came to the collection in 2010 from Kent, NY and the second one came a decade later from the Fancher family in 2020.

During the latter half of the 19th century, Buffalo, NY was described as the “Melodeon Capital of the World,” which is odd considering many folks from this area today probably don’t even know what a melodeon is.  By definition, a melodeon is a small, reed organ with up to a five- or six-octave keyboard, usually housed in a piano-like cabinet.

The melodeon’s popularity in 19th century homes even exceeded that of the piano, which was more costly to produce and required frequent tuning.  The melodeon produces its sound by drawing air in through suction produced by a foot pedal bellows, the air then passes over metal reeds, to produce specific musical notes, all without the need for tuning.

The Buffalo connection was forged through the partnership of Jeremiah Carhart and Elias Needham, working under the employ of George A. Prince & Co. Music Store at 200 Main Street, Buffalo.  Their patent in 1846 solved several deficiencies found in earlier melodeon versions, hence their model became known as the “Improved Melodeon” as shown above.

The Cobblestone Universalist Church probably used an early melodeon, historically, to provide accompaniment for congregational singing. The Universalist congregation found here in the 19th century had ceased regular services in the church in the 1890s, when the parishioners moved to their new Pullman Memorial Church in Albion.

Daniel Heater of Kent donated a melodeon and stool to the Cobblestone Museum in 2010. On this instrument, players must continuously pump the right foot pedal to power the bellows while playing the keyboard. The left foot pedal is for volume control.

On some melodeons the legs are collapsible so that they could easily be moved. One local family in the past folded the legs up under their melodeon and loaded it on to their sleigh to take it to a gathering in order to have music. Unfortunately the museum’s melodeon is not currently playable, but it is still a lovely example of a popular instrument of the times and is a great addition to the museum’s collection.

Fancher House, South Main Street, Albion, circa 1905

More recently, the Museum was fortunate to receive another, albeit smaller, melodeon that harkens back to the “Fancher House” in Albion, having been passed down from Ida Baldwin Fancher (1858-1929), wife of Rev. Edward Fancher, and then to Mrs. Archie (Irene Hayes) Fancher (1897-1940). In 2020, Sandra Fancher-Bastedo donated her Fancher family heirloom to the Museum for posterity, on behalf of her siblings, children and many extended family members.

The Fancher melodeon, stands approximately 30″ high, 30″ wide, and 14″ deep, has a four-octave range with ivory keys. The bellows are attached beneath the keyboard and are pumped using the musician’s knees instead of feet.

In his book, “Trivial Tales,” author Bill Lattin tells a story about a certain Irishman who was his great-grandfather’s tenant in 1880.  Lattin knew that the Irish family was hard up and needed whatever help they could get. He approached the Poormaster and explained the family’s dire straits.  (At that time, before our current Social Service system, each town selected a Poormaster who made the decisions on who in that town should receive public assistance.)

The Poormaster agreed to check in on the Irish family.  A few weeks later, Lattin inquired once again of the Poormaster who offered the following reasoning for not extending public assistance to the Irish family. He said, “I went to see them, but we can’t help them, they have a melodeon in the house.”

His reasoning was, if they could afford a melodeon, they didn’t need assistance.  But actually, the story just goes to show the universal appeal and affordability of the simple melodeon in the 19th century household, unlike its more expensive cousin, the piano or reed organ.  The Irish family’s melodeon may well have been acquired second hand, or even been given to them at little or no cost.  By 1880, reed organs were replacing the melodeon as the instrument of choice.

Historic Childs: Musical Instruments, Part 2 (The Estey Reed Organ)

Posted 3 May 2022 at 8:26 pm

By Doug Farley, Cobblestone Museum Director – Vol. 3 No. 11

GAINES – In this installment of “Historic Childs,” we take a look at another musical instrument in the collection of the Cobblestone Museum.  This 1904 Estey Reed Organ, by far the largest musical instrument in our collection, is now at home at the National Historic Landmark Cobblestone Universalist Church (1834). It is unusual by appearance, in that the rank of pipes on top of the organ are strictly non-functional and have been placed there to give the illusion that the instrument is a pipe organ (i.e., fake pipe top).

The first organ in the Universalist Church was perhaps a small Melodeon that proved insufficient for the size of the building. It was replaced by a pump organ, and later, the one shown above. This organ has now been moved to the lower level of the Church following the donation of the Estey Organ. Notice the foot petals that pumped bellows that provided the moving air that produced the musical notes.

The Cobblestone Universalist Church followed the custom of the time and placed the organ in the choir loft located in the rear of the sanctuary and the preacher at the opposite end.  At one time, all of the churches in Albion followed this tradition, until more modern times saw all of the churches (except the historic Cobblestone Church and St. Joseph’s Catholic Church) place choir and clergy in the same area in the sanctuary.

The Estey Reed Organ was built for church performance in Brattleboro, Vermont in 1904, and features two full keyboards and a pedal board.  Estey Organ Company was founded in 1852 by Jacob Estey, who bought out another Brattleboro manufacturing business. At its peak, the company was one of the world’s largest organ manufacturers, employing about 700 people, and selling its high-quality items around the world. Estey built around 500,000 to 520,000 pump organs between 1846 and 1955. Estey also produced pianos, made at the Estey Piano Company Factory in New York City.

Wade Gidley at the Pullman Memorial Church Centennial Celebration, April 17, 1994

The Museum’s Estey Organ was secured for the Cobblestone Society in 1996 by Wade Gidley, a local organist that later moved to Texas. It was acquired through a donation by Mrs. Katherine Tuthill of Williamsville NY.  The organ was moved from its former home in Williamsville by movers who carried it upstairs to its current location in the Cobblestone Church organ/choir loft.

Wade Gidley was born in Albion and lived in Orleans County most of his life. His love for the organ began when he was a small child. He studied under the late Harold Suzanne in Medina, taking lessons on the pipe organ at the old Masonic Temple in Medina and also on the organ of the First Baptist Church there.

He received his first appointment as a resident organist at the age of 14 at the Lyndonville United Methodist Church. He also played at St. John’s Lutheran Church at County Line in the Town of Yates and the Knowlesville United Methodist Church.

Following High School, Wade spent three years in the Army as Chapel Organist at Fort Leonard Wood in Missouri, and while stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany, he played at the Sacred Heart of Jesus Parish in the Hanan Military community.  Upon returning to the United States, he played at the Pullman Memorial Universalist Church, Albion; First Baptist Church, Medina; and St. Patrick’s Episcopal Church in Cheektowaga.

Announcement of the intended organ donation was made to the Cobblestone Board of Trustees at their April meeting in 1996, and the board, along with Museum Director/Curator Bill Lattin, quickly began to plan a dedication service for the “new” organ to be held on June 1st.

Pat Morrisey volunteered to prepare refreshments and Mary Anne Braunbach offered to video-tape the event so it could be shared with Mrs. Tuthill, the donor, who was not able to attend.

Mr. Gidley, assisted by Ken Root, began to make preparations for the permanent installation of the organ in the church choir loft.  The men installed a four-inch pipe in the attic for the blower motor, which cut down on the noise.  In the organ’s earlier placements, it would have been “powered” by bellows which were operated by a “blow-boy.”  This young man would have provided the man-power needed to force air into the reed organ by pumping bellows, usually located behind a screen (shown above), so as not to be a distraction to the musician or audience.

A plaque was ordered to honor the donor, Mrs. Tuthill, who taught 6th grade for 45 years in the Buffalo Public Schools. She studied music at the University of Buffalo and played the organ and piano throughout most of her life. For 22 years, she led the Children’s Choir at the First Presbyterian Church of Buffalo.

When June 1st arrived, the Dedication was attended by 63 guests. Bill Lattin remarked that there were many first-time visitors among the guests. Following the Dedication in the sanctuary, guests retired to the Proctor Room in the lower level of the church to enjoy the delicious refreshments prepared by Pat Morrisey.

Throughout the years, the Estey Organ has continued to provide wonderful music, reminiscent of an earlier form of church music. In addition to countless weddings that have taken place over the years in the church since the organ’s arrival in 1996, the Estey organ has also provided music for hymn singing twice each year, when the congregation from the Pullman Memorial Universalist Church in Albion visits their old “stomping grounds” for summer services, usually held on the last Sunday of June and first Sunday of July.  The later service is a community patriotic event that includes hymn singing as well as patriotic readings, designed to celebrate the Fourth of July.

On May 12, 2018, the Cobblestone Museum held its first Progressive Organ Concert, and its own Estey Organ became the first stop on the tour that day.  Mr. Andrew Meier, principal organist at Trinity Lutheran Church in Medina, performed selections designed to highlight church music from the early 1900s and demonstrated the full melodic function of the instrument.

Born and raised in Medina, Andrew Meier graduated from Medina High School in 1997, and graduated magna cum laude in political science from the University of Rochester in 2001 and cum laude from the Syracuse University College of Law in 2004.

The 2018 Progressive Organ Concert included a beef bourguignon dinner prepared by Maarit Vaga and served in the Fellowship Hall at Christ Episcopal Church, Albion.  A sell-out crowd of 80 guests filled the hall. Now that COVID is declining (we hope) the Cobblestone Society & Museum again hopes to have another Progressive Organ Concert in the future.

Historic Childs: Musical Instruments, Part 1 – The Bass Viol

Posted 14 April 2022 at 8:03 pm

The Cobblestone Museum owns a Bass viol that is more than 200 years old. It is displayed in the choir loft of the Cobblestone Church on Route 104.

By Doug Farley, Cobblestone Museum Director – Vol. 3 No. 10

Lately, I’ve enjoyed teaming up with retired museum director Bill Lattin to produce several recent articles of the “Historic Childs” series, including the eight article series on “Popular Images of Yesteryear.”

I always learn a lot when I work with Bill and, having been a “Niagara County boy,” I’m pleased to have firmly extended my horizons into Orleans County. And, it’s very nice that Orleans County readers have made me feel so welcome.

The crunch to produce weekly articles has required me to open my eyes and take a good look at the great wealth of history in and around the Hamlet of Childs, and particularly, the Cobblestone Museum. That being said, I pitched the idea to Bill about a new series of articles about historic musical instruments at the Museum, and we decided that while we are at it, we could throw in some articles about some of Edison’s earliest devices that reproduced the human voice, too.

Let’s begin with a Bass viol that has been displayed in the choir loft of the Cobblestone Church since well before my arrival in 2017. The idea of a Bass viol on exhibit at the church makes perfect sense.  The bass was one of the early instruments that would have accompanied hymn singing in the 18th and 19th centuries.  Bill Lattin wrote about this particular instrument in his Directors Report of August 1996:

“The museum was given an old Bass viol by Marion “Mickey” Lusk. I did a story on it for my weekly column (Bethinking Old Orleans) and also a news release for Batavia, Lockport and Niagara Falls. Jim Orr took a photo for these.”

The Bass viol in question was believed to be over 200 years old at the time of its arrival at the Museum. The instrument itself, when examined closely, shows that it has seen a lot of use over the years, decades, and even centuries of music making. To quote Paul Harvey, I was pleased to learn “the rest of the story.”

Marion “Mickey” Lusk (1921-2012) and her mother, Rose Foreman, circa 1940s

Prior to the instruments arrival at the Cobblestone Museum, Marion “Mickey” Lusk had played the bass with a variety of musical groups including the “Rhythmnaires” and “Troubadours.”

Mickey related that both she and her mother, Rose Foreman, played the bass. Her mother began by first using a bow, until someone said, “Rose, just pluck it!” Mickey said, after that she just plucked it, “but used to get some pretty sore fingers.”

Mickey Lusk and the Rhythm-Aires providing Country-Western entertainment, Medina Journal Register, Feb. 1, 1973

In 1939, Mickey Lusk played with the “Rhythm Ramblers” at the Corfu Grange. Others who played with the ensemble were Joe Colby, Pee Wee Southcott and Jack Lacy. Years earlier this popular group could be heard on radio stations in Lockport and Batavia. This group broke up in the 1940s and another group known as the “Rhythm-Aires” was formed in the mid-1950s. In 1955 Mickey also played with Cy Roberts and the “Troubadours.”

In 1963, Mickey Lusk and her “Rhythm Ramblers” performed in the Holley “Hootenanny Show” to benefit the Cancer Society. The presentation followed the same format as the “Hootenanny” TV Show that was popular at the time. Other entertainment at that event included the “Epics” of Mount Morris, and the “Cyclones” of Medina.

Going back even further, Mickey Lusk offered more history about the old Bass viol:

“Sometime in the early 1920s, Frank Bissell went to the Bragg Schoolhouse Road and bought the bass from Veteran Bragg for five dollars. He brought it home and taught his daughter Rose to play it for house dances. In the late 1920s, Frank sold it to Walter Lusk, again, for five dollars. Then in 1940, Alvie Culver had an auction and Rose and Mike Foreman saw it there. They bid on the bass and bought it for fifty cents. They brought it home and took it over to Fred Hagadorn at Royalton to fix it. He wanted to buy it and offered $300. At that time, it was about 150 years old. Rose told him “no” and took it home and played it with her daughter in their orchestra. It was played until about 1955.”

In 1996, Mickey Lusk said the Bass viol represents “a lot of good times and a lot of tears.” Today, it is an artifact which represents the cultural climate of a bygone era. The bass is unusual in that it was built with only three strings (which helps to date it.) Fred Hagadorn thought it might have been built by a German maker of musical instruments.

This photo from 1996 shows Marion Lusk playing the three-string bass next to the Cobblestone Church at the time of her donation.

Fast forward to 2022 during a digitization project for the Museum’s old photos, and the Bass viol became the topic of conversation once again. The archivist became intrigued with this photo of Marion Lusk and the three string bass from 1996.  He offered his observations at that time:

“I emailed the photograph (above) to my older brother who is the retired double bass symphony musician. Over the years he has done repairs and restorations of string bass instruments. He replied that 3-string basses were common in the 18th-19th centuries in parts of Europe, especially in Italy and France. He bought (for $3,000) a c.1880 French bass from a friend several years ago that needed some work. It had been crudely converted to 4-strings…and over about six months of part-time fooling, including rebuilding the peg box completely, made it more playable. He sold it a couple of years ago to a friend for $25,000. The pegs (“hat-peg”) in this picture aren’t French, I think; maybe German or Eastern Europe?  The bass shape could easily be French though.”

While the Museum doesn’t focus on the monetary value of its collection (We don’t intend to sell our artifacts!) it is interesting to note that an item purchased for 50 cents at auction in the 1940s has possibly appreciated into five-figure territory.

Unfortunately though, the Museum’s Bass viol has many condition issues that the 1996 photograph didn’t depict, such as modern metal screws holding several parts of the instrument’s 1800s wooden body together.

Perhaps a music lover would be willing to help fully restore this cherished piece of history for future generations to enjoy?

Historic Childs: Popular Images of Yesteryear, Part 8 – The Light of the World

Posted 7 April 2022 at 8:15 am

By Doug Farley & Bill Lattin – Vol. 3 No. 9

CHILDS – This late 19th century lithograph of Jesus knocking at the door is one of several Victorian prints which hang in the Cobblestone Church. It is a variation on a famous painting entitled, “The Light of the World,” by William Holman Hunt, completed in 1853. Our example at the Museum is simply based on the text:

“Behold I stand at the door and knock. If anyone listens to My voice and opens the door, I shall come in to him and dine with him, and he with Me.”  Rev. 3:20

The print above, circa 1900, from a private collection, is much more like Hunt’s original painting, also based on the text:

“I am the Light of the World, the one who follows Me will not walk in darkness, but will have the Light of Life.” John 8:12

With these two texts in mind, biblical validation is given for what became a very popular evangelistic image, widely reproduced in many forms and places.

One of the most outstanding examples of this subject may be found in the Carlton United Methodist Church, off Archbald Road. Here Hunt’s famous painting was recreated in stained glass by Haskins Studio from Rochester NY, circa 1935, for the Waterport Methodist Church. When that church building was given up in 1988, the window was moved to its present location. It is the only stained glass window of this subject matter in any Orleans County church.

Great symbolism was used by the artist in portraying Jesus in this manner. In essence, He is knocking at your door, but because there is no latch on the outside, you must open it up from the inside in order let Him into your own heart. The lantern Jesus holds is the light which has become symbolic of Him.

Phillips Brooks (1835-1893) in his famous hymn, “O Little Town of Bethlehem” wrote, “Yet in thy dark streets shineth, the everlasting Light.” It portrays the moment when human destiny hangs in the balance, when Divine Love patiently waits upon human reluctance. Its basic message calls for a decision.

Jesus is dressed in a white robe which in itself is a symbol of light, faith, joy, life and purity. Over it is draped a red mantel which symbolizes divine love. This is fastened with a large breast plate which signifies His priesthood. A golden crown denotes Him as Christ the King. Entwined with this is a crown of thorns, which signified suffering and the crucifixion, while the halo reflects His holiness. He stands at the door of the human heart, barred with nails and rusty hinges. The threshold is overgrown with brambles as He approaches in the night time.

He brings a twofold light. The lantern represents the light of consciences, for it reveals sin. Its radiance sheds light upon the door, thicket and an apple on the ground-a symbol of the first sin. The other light is from Christ’s face which proclaims hope. His expression is one of tenderness, thus asking admittance.

“There’s a stranger at the door

Let Him in.

He has been there oft’ before

Let Him in.”

Now for a moment, we return to our first print located in the Cobblestone Church. In this variation we note Jesus is dressed in a yellow or golden colored mantel which symbolically represents the goodness and bounty of God. By contrast however, the color purple of the robe underneath symbolizes His martyrdom.

The famous painting that these works is based on are shown here. It is located at Keble College in Oxford, England. It measures a little less than 36 inches in height.

William Hunt (1837-1910), self-portrait, 1867

William Holman Hunt was born in London and studied painting at the British Museum and the National Gallery. In 1844 he entered the Royal Academy where he joined with two other artists, Sir John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, to develop the Pre-Raphaelite theories of art.

In 1848 they formed the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. During the 1850s, Hunt went to the Holy Land to portray scenes from the life of Jesus of Nazareth, aiming to achieve historical and archaeological truth. He returned to Palestine in 1869 and again in 1873 for further study.

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood attempted to restore the artistic principles and practices regarded as characteristic of Italian Art before Raphael. They seemed to lower the exalted to the commonplace, but never aimed to protest injustice, ugliness or misery. Hunt strove to fuse truth, beauty and decorum in biblical and evangelical culture with which he was absorbed.

Another one of Hunt’s famous paintings is shown above.  It is entitled “The Scapegoat,” 1854, which has a most haunting aspect of its overall imagery.

We end the story with Hunt’s famous painting, seemingly a prediction, entitled, “The Shadow of Death,” 1870-73.